1. Identify a research problem 辨别研究的问题
2. Find background information/review the literature 查找相关背景信息
3. Determine research question/purpose 确定研究课题
4. Collect data 收集实验数据
5. Analyse and interpret data 分析、解读数据
6. Report and evaluate research 评价研究
比如11-4-1中的文章Research using twins
首段提出“nature and nurture”的话题- Identify a research problem
To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a precious opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and the environment - of nature and nurture…
第2-第5段交代背景知识和过去的相关研究- Find background information/review the literature
The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase 'nature and nurture’).
Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup.
第6段提出最近的研究课题”epigenetics” - Determine research question/purpose
According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play…
第7-9段讲解具体epigenetic实验的背景和实验结果collect and analyse data
Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.
第10-12段分析了epigenetic实验的意义- Report and evaluate research
Twin studies have allowed us to be more reflective about what people are actually born with and what’s caused by experience.
Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further.
An emerging discipline called neuroaesthetics is seeking to bring scientific objectivity to the study of art, and has already given us a better understanding of many masterpieces.
Could the same approach also shed light on abstract twentieth-century pieces, from Mondrian's geometrical blocks of colour, to Pollock's seemingly haphazard arrangements of splashed paint on canvas? （背景）Sceptics believe that people claim to like such works simply because they are famous. We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd. （大众观点）When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image （实验过程）, for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same（实验结果）. It is easy to imagine that this mentality would have even more impact on a fuzzy concept like art appreciation, where there is no right or wrong answer（实验分析）.
5-1-2：Nature or nurture?
12-7-3：Music and emotions
14-4-1：The secret of staying young
15-2-3：Having a laugh
investigate = study = research
data = figure = number = information = results
analyse = interpret